In recent years Europe has seen an increase in the incidence of mental illness. Therefore, an important and new problem is the emerging question about the prevention of such disorders.
Introduction: Motorbikes in Poland are becoming an increasingly popular means of transportation, especially in cities. This is due to the significant increase of urban traffic and the search for a faster alternative to daily commuting of local residents. Unfortunately, moving around with two-wheelers is associated with a significantly increased risk of injury and its severity as a result of a road traffic accident.
Falls in the elderly are a serious health problem. Among the causes of falls can be distinguished internal factors that are related to the aging process of the body and external factors, which are conditioned by the influence of the environment in which the senior lives. Falls are classified as so-called great geriatric problems. Preventive actions should be based mainly on multidirectional interventions, taking into account physical activity in particular. The aim of this article has been to analyze the threat of falls in the elderly and prevention of them.
Helping trauma victims, especially by professionals, can lead to secondary traumatization, also understood as secondary traumatic stress. Symptoms of secondary traumatic stress are the same as those of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and include four categories, i.e. intrusion, avoidance, negative changes in cognition and mood, and increased arousal and reactivity. Secondary traumatic stress occurs most often in social workers, therapists, probation officers and representatives of medical services (doctors, nurses, paramedics). This phenomenon is also observed in non-professionals, i.e. people who support or only accompany trauma victims or sufferers. Among the factors favoring the onset of secondary traumatization, there are factors related to work/organization and subjective factors, among which a special role is attributed to empathy. Occurring symptoms of secondary traumatic stress can be managed through the use of various types of interactions, including various forms of self-care.
The purpose of the article is to present the meaning of significant life events, which become an individually important part of our identity and life history, and a turning point that changes the way man perceives the world in everyday life. While positive events become central through their relationship with cultural norms, negative events interact through psychological mechanisms. Healthy people prefer to focus on positive information, recall it and imagine it. However, for people in a difficult emotional situation, suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders or depression, negative and traumatic events are better remembered and their predictions about the future are more pessimistic. Positive events are considered to be more crucial for identity and life history, negative events, and traumatic experiences, as the most harmful to the individual’s health. In the end of the article, attention was paid to underestimating emotionally positive life events, including traumatic ones (e.g. associated with organ transplants), which can lead to postecstatic growth.
The following paper discusses the etiology of psychosomatic disorders. It proposes and develops a hypothesis that connects psychosomatic risk with traumatic experiences in early childhood, including parental bonding pathology. To validate the hypothesis, the paper stresses the deep resemblance between the consequences of childhood trauma syndrome (DESNOS syndrome) and the long-term results of negative somatic experiences, including the change in functioning on the neurophysiological level (Bowlby’s attachment theory, object relation theory, study results for negative impact of somatic experiences, carcinogenesis models). On the other hand, the proposed hypothesis is backed by the current widely accepted role of stress together with adaptive and defensive strategies. They are reflected in the forming of the type A, C, and D behavior patterns in adults and their significance (apart from constitutional weakness) as factors of psychosomatic risk.